Minneapolis Dental Services
We offer a full suite of high-quality dental services. From routine cleanings to orthodontic treatments, botox and more. High quality and compassion are the two terms that best describe our philosophy of patient centered care at Central Dental. We are passionate about our patients and their well being.
Preventative Dental Cleaning
Good daily oral hygiene is the best way to reduce or entirely prevent the need for more extensive dental treatment. Everyone should brush and floss after every meal, or at least twice a day. Cleaning your teeth before bedtime is especially important.
Daily cleaning with brush and floss, however, is not always enough to keep your teeth completely clean and free from plaque-causing bacteria. Over time, these bacteria can accumulate on the teeth and gums and form plaque along the hard-to-clean areas of your mouth, like the back teeth and along the gum line. Bacteria in plaque release acids that can damage tooth enamel and lead to cavities.
Over time, plaque mineralizes to create a hard substance called tartar (dental calculus). Once it forms on your teeth, cleaning effectively is made much more difficult. Tartar along the gum line can allow bacteria to create inflammation, leading to progressive gum disease which can ultimately cause you to lose teeth and may even degrade the bone in which your teeth are secured.
Due to its hardness and tendency to occur in inaccessible areas, removing tartar requires professional preventative cleaning, which we can provide along with your routine checkups.
Recent studies have shown that these preventative cleanings are particularly important for people with certain medical conditions or lifestyles. These include diabetes, heart disease, pregnancy, and smoking among others. Patients in this category should pay extra attention to their oral health, as the quality of their tooth cleanings and dental care can have an added impact on mitigating the damages caused by other conditions.
Good oral hygiene protects far more than your teeth and gums. Let us help you maintain your overall health through excellent dental care!
Our services include:
- professional cleaning
- deep cleaning (root planing and scaling)
- comprehensive examination
- films (Xrays)
- athletic guards
Scaling and Root Planing
Scaling and root planing are treatments for periodontal disease, infections of the gum and bone that hold teeth in place. Untreated periodontal disease can lead to tooth loss, and symptoms may not be obvious until your gums or bone are seriously damaged. The good news is that periodontal diseases often can be treated in the early stages.
Scaling and root planing are non-surgical steps that remove plaque and tartar below the gum line, and then smooth your teeth to reduce future accumulation on the root surfaces.
Treatment requires one or more visits, but often patients do not require any further treatment, only preventative care. Preventing and treating the disease in the early stages are the best ways to keep your smile healthy.
Gingivitis: The initial stage of periodontal disease. Affected gum areas become increasingly inflamed, appear swollen, and may bleed easily. The condition is reversible at this stage with regular brushing, flossing and visits to the dentist. If not treated, gingivitis may lead to periodontitis.
Periodontitis: This condition can irreversibly damage the gums and bones that support the teeth, but treatment can help. How periodontitis is treated depends on how far the condition has progressed and, in the more advanced stage, may require complex treatment to prevent tooth loss.
Tooth decay often occurs on the chewing surfaces of back teeth. Sealants can offer major protection against tooth decay and improve the likelihood that you will remain filling-free. They are especially important for children’s first emerging permanent molars, because children might not have the dexterity to brush their teeth effectively and are still developing good brushing habits. However, sealants can be beneficial at any age.
What is a sealant? A sealant is a material that is applied to the teeth where decay occurs most often—the chewing surfaces of the back teeth. These teeth have pits and grooves that are difficult to keep clean, because toothbrush bristles cannot reach into them. The sealant—a plastic resin—bonds into the pits and grooves and acts as a barrier, protecting enamel from plaque and acids.
How are sealants applied? It usually takes only a few minutes to seal each tooth. First, the teeth that will be sealed are cleaned. Second, the chewing surfaces are pre-treated with a conditioner to help the sealant stick to the tooth. Third, the sealant is ‘painted’ onto the tooth enamel, where it bonds directly to the tooth and hardens. Sometimes a special curing light is used to help the sealant harden.
How long do sealants last? Sealants may last several years before they need to be reapplied. As long as the sealant remains intact, the tooth surface will be protected from decay. During your regular dental visits, your dentist will check the condition of the sealants and reapply them when necessary.
Sports Mouth Guard
Mouth guards are usually made from molded plastic and are very effective in preventing injury to teeth and mouth resulting from blunt force trauma. The ADA estimates that mouth guards prevent approximately 200,000 injuries each year in high school and collegiate football alone.
Mouth guards should be used by anyone — children and adults — who play contact sports such as football, hockey, soccer, basketball, lacrosse, or rugby. However, even those participating in noncontact sports that can result in trauma to the face, such as horseback riding, skateboarding, or skiing, can use mouth guards to prevent or at least minimize injury.
In our office, we make custom mouth guards designed for maximum protection with only minimal effects on speaking and breathing.
Dental Fillings in Minneapolis
Tooth-colored and Silver Fillings
When teeth are affected by cavities caused by decay (caries), the decayed areas of the tooth can be removed and replaced by fillings, provided the decay has not progressed too far. The fillings come in two basic materials; tooth-colored composites or ‘silver’ fillings.
Tooth-colored fillings usually consist of a composite material made up of acrylic resin, quartz (to resist wear) and colorants to match the natural color of the tooth. Fillings made with these composites bond well to the internal surfaces of the tooth, which enhances the strength of the filling. In addition, they are usually unnoticeable due to excellent color matching with the natural tooth. Composite fillings also require less drilling and preserve more of the original tooth, because silver fillings require a certain size to resist breaking or falling out.
‘Silver’ fillings, also called amalgam, in fact consist of a mixture of silver, tin, copper, and mercury. Silver fillings have been used in dentistry for over 100 years with good results. While mercury in itself may be harmful, many studies have shown that very little is released from the amalgam in fillings.
Silver fillings are often less expensive than composite fillings and some insurance policies may not cover that additional cost of composite fillings. Silver fillings are more noticeable due to their darker color.
Which should I choose?
Tooth-colored composite fillings are superior in most applications to silver fillings, but they might be more expensive than silver fillings. For these reasons, we typically recommend the use of composites for all fillings. Composites are always recommended to fill the more noticeable front teeth to protect the appearance of your smile. In rare occasions, silver filings might be used toward the rear of the mouth, where they are less visible. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type of filling with you, if and when one or more is required. As always, a natural healthy tooth is preferable to repair work, and our primary task is to help you avoid the necessity of fillings altogether!
There is no perfect substitute for a natural, healthy tooth. A tooth that has decay will need treatment with a dental filling or other restoration depending on the extent of the decay.
A dental filling may last many years before it needs replacing. However, fillings are subject to constant stress from chewing. Clenching or grinding teeth also puts tremendous force on fillings and tooth enamel. All of these can cause a filling to gradually wear away, chip, crack or fall out.
Regular dental examinations are important because problems with existing fillings generally can be detected in the early stage. During your checkup, we can determine whether existing fillings are intact, or if any have cracked or worn away. Worn fillings should be replaced promptly. Don’t wait until the tooth hurts or the filling and the tooth crack. This can complicate treatment and make it more costly.
It is particularly important that teeth with fillings be kept in good health with regular dental visits and professional teeth cleanings. If extensive tooth decay develops around an existing filling, little tooth structure may be left once the decay is removed. Your dentist may need to restore the tooth with a crown instead of another filling.
Our services include:
- white (composite) fillings vs silver (amalgam) fillings
- bondings (white, composite)
Bridge (Fixed Prosthetics)
A bridge is a restoration that replaces one or more teeth that have been lost. This restoration is permanently cemented.
Reasons to have a bridge: The loss of a tooth may cause your mouth to sink and your face to look older. A bridge helps maintain the natural shape of your face and prevents the movement of teeth that would otherwise occur and negatively affect the way you chew and speak. A fixed bridge is commonly cemented to the natural teeth next to the space left by the missing teeth. A false tooth replaces the lost tooth, and crowns on either side of the bridge provide support.
Taking care of your bridge: It is very important to keep your remaining teeth healthy. A bridge can lose its support if the supporting and surrounding teeth or the jawbone that holds it becomes damaged by dental diseases. Brushing twice a day with fluoride toothpaste and cleaning between the teeth and under the bridge with floss or other interdental cleaners, is essential to maintain the bridge foundation.
A crown is a restoration that covers, or caps, a tooth to restore it to its normal shape and size. Its purpose is to strengthen and improve the appearance of a tooth. A crown is placed for a number of reasons:
- to support a large filling when there isn’t enough tooth remaining
- to attach a bridge
- to protect a weak tooth from fracturing
- to protect a tooth with a root canal treatment from fracturing
- to restore a fractured tooth
- to cover a badly shaped or discolored tooth
- to cover a dental implant
Usually, two visits are necessary to place a crown. At the first visit the tooth must be prepared and an impression made to provide a model for the dental lab that makes the crown. In addition, a temporary crown is placed on the tooth. At the second visit, the permanent crown is cemented in.
What is a temporary crown? Temporary crowns are made of hard plastic or metal (stainless steel) and protect the prepared tooth and allow you to eat and speak normally while you wait for the permanent crown.
Materials: Crowns are made from a number of materials. Gold alloys or nonprecious alloys, porcelain or ceramic, acrylic or composite resin, or combinations of these materials. Materials vary in cost, durability, and appearance. We will discuss with you which are best suited for your new crown based on your own unique dental circumstances.
Our services include:
- full porcelain
- porcelain covered gold alloy
Dental Implants Minneapolis
As an alternative to dentures and conventional bridges, dental implants offer a stable and secure base for individual replacement teeth, bridges or a denture. Dental implants are surgically placed below the gum. They fuse to the bone, providing a very stable foundation.
Dentures, bridges or crowns mounted on implants won’t slip or shift in your mouth, and the integration into your jaw helps the replacement teeth feel natural.
The procedure is extremely effective, but it can be costly because it is time-consuming and normally involves a surgeon and a restorative dentist. Implants are also not suitable for everyone, in every circumstance. We can perform a thorough evaluation to help determine whether you are a good candidate for implants.
Our services include:
- single and multiple implants
- implants supported removable dentures
- implants supported fixed dentures (Revitalize, All on 4)
Although the “natural” tooth color varies from person to person, tooth discoloration can be caused by such things as tobacco use, dark foods and beverages (e.g., coffee & red wine), age, certain medications, and tooth trauma. While most people’s teeth become darker and more yellow as they age, whiter and brighter teeth are considered more attractive at any age. Fortunately, tooth discoloration is treatable.
Treatment consists of the use of whitening trays (custom fitted or prefabricated) that fit over the teeth and hold a tooth whitener in place for about 30 minutes at a time for about 10-14 days. The active ingredient in most tooth whiteners is some form of peroxide. Oxygen molecules from the peroxide penetrate the tooth and break down discolored molecules. The treatment provided in our office differs from over the counter whitening sets in that the trays are of better quality and the whitening agent is stronger (prescription strength) and you are assured it was properly stored and handled (e.g., refrigerated).
Some people, though not all, experience some sensitivity during whitening. This sensation is temporary, however, and typically disappears within a few days of treatment.
Veneers are thin pieces of porcelain or composite cemented or bonded over the front of your teeth to change their color or shape. Veneers are used to improve the appearance of teeth with uneven surfaces or teeth that are chipped, discolored, oddly shaped, unevenly spaced or crooked. Veneers also are used to mask teeth stained by tetracycline, by an injury, or as a result of a root-canal procedure, and are ideal for masking discolored fillings in front teeth. Veneers are usually irreversible because it is necessary to remove a small amount of enamel from your teeth to accommodate the veneer. Veneers can be used to treat a single tooth or several teeth, and usually require little or no anesthesia.
Veneers come in two materials, porcelain and composites.
Porcelain veneers have a longer life expectancy and color stability than composite veneers, and are more resistant to staining from coffee, tea, and even smoking. They are made by a dental lab working from a model provided by the dentist, which means that they require at least two appointments: one to prepare the teeth and take the impression for the model, the other to cement the veneers in place.
Composite veneers are made from the same composite materials as tooth colored fillings. They are not as strong and long lasting as porcelain veneers and are more susceptible to discoloration. On the other hand, they are applied by the dentist and therefore usually require only a single visit. In addition, they often are more economical.
Which should I choose?
Porcelain veneers are stronger, last longer, and are more resistant to discoloration. They are recommended in most cases. In particular, patients who eat and drink dark colored foods or who smoke should use porcelain veneers. Also, patients with a history of chipping their teeth should choose porcelain veneers for their greater strength. Ease of application and being more economical are the main advantages of composite veneers. Patients that avoid discoloring foods and drinks and are more careful in avoiding chipping their teeth can achieve excellent results with composite veneers. We will consult with you and recommend the appropriate veneer for your situation.
Root Canal Treatment
A tooth usually has between 1-4 roots that anchor it to the jawbone. Root canals are tiny passageways that branch off from beneath the top of the tooth winding downward until they reach the tip of the root. Root canal treatment involves the removal of the tooth’s soft tissue, or pulp, including the nerve from the tooth and root canals. Once removed, the pulp is replaced with materials that seal off the root canal from surrounding tissues.
Why is root canal treatment performed? Root canal treatment is usually performed because tooth decay, trauma, or gum disease has caused an infection in the tooth’s soft tissues, which can cause pain, sensitivity, further infection, and potentially tooth loss.
What does root canal treatment involve? Tooth decay is removed and an opening is made into the tooth’s pulp chamber. The pulp is removed, and the root canal is cleaned and shaped. Antibiotic treatment may be required if the infection has spread further than the end of the root. The tooth is then restored by a permanent filling and crown. Most patients who have root canal experience little or no discomfort or pain, and enjoy a restored tooth that can last almost as long as its healthy original.
Removable Partial Dentures
If you are missing teeth, removable partial dentures may be for you, especially if there are not enough remaining teeth or implants to use as anchors for a bridge. Partial dentures help you chew food properly, and support your lips and cheeks to help improve your speech and prevent your face from sagging. Partial dentures also help maintaining the health of your other teeth.
Removable partial dentures usually have replacement teeth attached to gum-colored bases connected by a framework. They may attach to your natural teeth with metal clasps or precision attachments. Crowns on your natural teeth may improve the way a removable partial denture fits your mouth. A consultation will discover which type is right for you.
It takes a little time to become accustomed to a new removable partial denture. It may feel awkward for the first few weeks, but eventually your mouth will become accustomed to it. It is important that the denture fits easily into place, and some adjustments may be necessary to ensure a correct fit.
Eating and speaking
Eating is more pleasant when your missing teeth are replaced. It is recommended that you avoid hard or sticky food and chewing gum while you adjust to the new denture. Some people may find that it takes a short time to return to speaking normally with a new denture.
Caring for your removable partial denture
Brush the denture every day to remove food deposits and plaque – rinsing alone is not enough. The toothbrush used, and the toothpaste, should be recommended for use with dentures, as a hard brush or unsuitable toothpaste can damage the material. Ask us for recommendations on how to care for your denture.
Adjustments and repairs
As your mouth shape changes naturally with age, the fit of your denture can change. Also, with normal wear and tear, the clasps that hold the denture in place can become loose. Ill-fitting or loose dentures can cause irritation or sores, and expert adjustment and repair is essential for keeping your denture and natural teeth in good shape.
Teeth Clenching and Grinding
Teeth clenching and/or grinding (bruxism) can be the cause of considerable tooth damage. Most people probably grind and clench their teeth from time to time, but occasional teeth grinding does not usually cause harm. When teeth grinding occurs on a regular basis, however, teeth can be damaged and other oral health complications can arise. The exact causes are unclear, although clenching and grinding are often associated with stress or anxiety.
Prolonged teeth clenching/grinding can affect your bite and permanently damage your teeth and temporomandibular joints (TMJ). In addition, teeth clenching/grinding can cause abrasion to the chewing surfaces of your teeth. This abnormal wear and tear will prematurely age and loosen your teeth, and open them to problems such as hypersensitivity (from the small cracks that form, exposing your dentin). Clenching/grinding can also lead to chronic jaw and facial pain, as well as headaches.
There are several treatments available for clenching/grinding. A common therapy involves use of a night guard worn while sleeping. Botox injections represent another form of treatment. Less intrusive, although potentially just as effective treatments involve stress reduction and myofunctional therapy, such as tongue exercises and learning how to properly align your tongue, teeth and lips.
Symptoms of clenching/grinding:
- Your jaw is often sore, or you hear popping sounds when you open and close your mouth.
- Your teeth look abnormally short or worn down.
- You notice small dents in your tongue.
- Your teeth feel sensitive, especially to cold
- Your bite changes, your teeth feel out of alignment
- Your facial muscles are sore
Tips to Reduce Stress that Might be Causing Clenching/Grinding.
- Avoid or cut back on foods and drinks that contain caffeine, such as colas, chocolate, and coffee.
- Avoid alcohol. Grinding tends to intensify after alcohol consumption.
- Do not chew on pencils or pens or anything that is not food. Avoid chewing gum as it allows your jaw muscles to get more used to clenching and makes you more likely to grind your teeth.
- Train yourself not to clench or grind your teeth. If you notice that you clench or grind during the day, position the tip of your tongue between your teeth or on the roof of your palate. This practice trains your jaw muscles to relax.
- Relax your jaw muscles at night by holding a warm washcloth or heat pack against your cheek in front of your earlobe for 10-15 minutes and massage the jaw muscles.
Children and Teeth Grinding
The problem of teeth grinding is not limited to adults. Approximately 15% to 33% of children grind their teeth. Teeth grinding in children is often associated with the emergence of baby teeth and, later, when their permanent teeth come in. Most children stop teeth grinding after these two sets of teeth have come in more fully.
Most commonly, children grind their teeth during sleep rather than during waking hours. No one knows exactly why children grind their teeth but possible causes other than emerging teeth include improperly aligned teeth or irregular contact between upper and lower teeth, illnesses and other medical conditions (such as nutritional deficiencies, pinworm, allergies, endocrine disorders), and psychological factors including anxiety and stress.
Grinding of the baby teeth rarely results in permanent damage, but grinding of permanent teeth can lead to premature wear and tear and ultimately tooth loss. In addition, teeth grinding can cause jaw pain, headaches, wear on the teeth, and TMD. Consult Dr. Koerner if your child’s teeth look worn or if your child complains of tooth sensitivity or pain.
Noninvasive methods to help a child stop grinding his or her teeth include:
- Decreasing a child’s stress, especially just before bed.
- Massage and stretching exercises to relax the muscles.
- Includes plenty of water in child’s diet.
- Monitor a child’s teeth if he or she is a grinder.
No intervention is usually required with preschool-age children. However, older children may need temporary crowns or other methods, such as a night guard, to prevent the grinding.
Our services include:
- Night/bruxing guards
- Botox injection
Toothaches might be caused by a number of things. Sometimes, a toothache can be caused by sugary food or drinks or by a piece of debris lodged in between two teeth. Such simple toothaches can be relieved by rinsing the mouth to clear it of debris and other matter. Other toothaches are caused by more serious conditions, such as abscessed/infected, broken, fractured, or displaced teeth.
Broken, Fractured, or Displaced Tooth
A broken, fractured or displaced tooth is usually not a cause for alarm, as long as decisive, quick action is taken. You should go to the dentist as soon as possible, or, if you have other injuries or a lot of pain, to the emergency room.
If the tooth has been knocked out, try to place the tooth back in its socket while waiting to see your dentist.
First, rinse the mouth of any blood or other debris and place a cold cloth or compress on the cheek near the injury. This will keep the swelling down. Then place the tooth in its socket.
If you cannot put the tooth back in its socket, hold the dislocated tooth by the crown – not the root. Next, place it in a container of warm milk, saline or the patient’s own saliva and keep it in the solution until you arrive at the emergency room or dentist’s office.
For a broken tooth, try to locate the broken piece(s) and wrap it in a wet cloth and bring it to the dentist or emergency room. It might be possible to reattach the piece.
For a fractured tooth, it is best to rinse with warm water and again, apply a cold pack or compress. Ibuprofen may be used to help keep down the swelling.
If the tooth fracture is minor, the tooth can be sanded or if necessary, restored by the dentist if the pulp is not severely damaged.
If a child’s primary tooth has been loosened by an injury or an emerging permanent tooth, the best course of action is to remove the loose tooth as soon as possible. For example, try getting the child to gently bite down on an apple or piece of caramel to separate the tooth from the gum.
What is an abscessed tooth?
When a tooth persistently throbs and keeps you up at night with pain, it could be infected. An abscessed tooth is an infection within a tooth that has spread to the root tip or around the root. This infection can originates from the inside (pulp chamber) of the tooth, or from the gum tissue surrounding the tooth. As the bacteria multiply, the infection usually spreads from the pulp chamber and exits through the bottom of the root into the bone. The abscess is a collection of pus that is made up of dead white blood cells, tissue debris, and bacteria.
A tooth abscess differs from a gum abscess by the source of the original infection. The tooth abscess (or “periapical abscess”) originates from the pulp of the tooth and exits out the tooth’s apex at the bottom of the root. A gum abscess (or “periodontal abscess”) starts in a gum pocket outside of the tooth next to the root. Treatment will depend on where the infection originates.
What causes an abscessed tooth?
There are many causes for a tooth abscess. A very common cause is when a dental cavity (decay) becomes so large and deep that it reaches the pulp chamber. Other causes for a tooth to become necrotic and abscess are a blow to a tooth, dental treatment such as a crown or a filling that gets too close to the pulp chamber, or trauma to a tooth from grinding or clenching.
Any tooth can develop an abscess, but third molars (wisdom teeth) are particularly prone to having a dental abscess because they are difficult to keep clean and can develop decay that can go unnoticed. Wisdom teeth are often removed to avoid this type of complication.
Botox® is the trade name for Botulinum, a purified protein. Botox works by temporarily preventing muscles from contracting.
Botox has important dental uses as treatment option for TMJ, clenching, grinding and facial pain.
Botox is also used to complement esthetic dentistry as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery. The areas typically treated with Botox for wrinkles are the forehead, between the eyes (frown lines), around the corners of the eyes (crow’s feet) and around the lips (smokers lines or gummy smile). There is no loss of sensory feeling in the muscles, but the muscle will not contract, causing wrinkles in the skin to smoothen out. The effects of Botulinum typically last three months. As the treated muscles regain movement, lines and wrinkles will begin to reappear and require re-treatment. Over time, these lines and wrinkles should appear less noticeable due to training the treated muscles to relax.
Receiving Botulinum injections takes only a few minutes and there is no need for anesthesia. The injections are made using a very fine needle and are virtually painless.
Generally, results are visible within two to ten days. To reduce the possibility of bruising/swelling, it is recommended to avoid alcohol for at least 24 hours and aspirin/anti-inflammatory medications for a period of two weeks prior to the procedure. As always, consult your physician before stopping any medications.
The most common side effects of Botulinum injections are bruising, redness, and swelling. Other, rare side effects are possible and will be reviewed with you by Dr. Koerner. To avoid adverse reactions/results, do not manipulate the treated area for 2 hours after injections and maintain an upright position.
Xeomin and Dysport are other trademarks for Botulinum and are used the same way that Botox is.
Our services include:
- Forehead lines
- Glabellar / frown lines
- Crow’s feet
- Smokers/ radial lip lines
If you are looking for a non- surgical face lift or you just want to smooth out a few fine lines or fill in deep set wrinkles, injectables are for you. Millions of people use dermal fillers to achieve a more relaxed and smooth facial appearance while still having the freedom of expression. As skin ages, it begins to lose collagen filled with hyaluronic acid (HA). Collagen and HA add structure and volume to the face, therefore a lack of HA causes the skin to sag and wrinkle – that’s where dermal fillers come into play.
Dermal fillers are smooth injectable gels made from naturally occurring hyaluronic acid. Dermal fillers add volume to weakened facial features and can stimulate collagen growth. There are different types of dermal fillers, but they all work in these two ways. First, they plump skin and gently lift it to restore collagen loss due to the normal aging process. Second, dermal fillers motivate the body to create its own natural collagen and restore your face to a more natural, youthful appearance.
Dermal fillers approved by the FDA are minimally invasive and very safe. As with any procedure, there are possible risks, the most common being post-procedure bruising and swelling, which are usually very minimal and resolve quickly.
Dermal filler treatments typically take 20-40 minutes and the amount of dermal filler needed will depend on volume loss and the areas you would like to restore to its natural beauty. You will see results immediately after treatment.
Our services include:
- Smile lines/ nasolabial folds
- Corner of the mouth
- Marionette lines
- Lip enhancement